Saturday, January 31, 2015

34 Different Phyla besides Plants and Animals to Consider For Enigmatic Fossils

(this is a sketch, i hope to flesh this article in)

34 multicellular or syncitium or large euk/prok phylla

Oscillitoria grow sheets with morphology, marine groups form stromatolites, Nostoc etc... form gell colonies, various symbiotic forms with fungi, plants...


Rhodobionta 5,500
red algae in ocean  there any freshwater?
Porphyria, Chondrus crispus, Polysiphonia, Ceramium, Corallina, Gigartina, Lithothamnion

Ulvophyta 3,679
green algae ocean and fresh
volvox, all the tiny colonies, cladophora on fishtanks, Ulva, Monostroma, Enteromorpha intestinalis, E. linza, Chaetomorpha linum, Codium fragile, feathery ones  no big freshwater ulvos?

Klebsormidiophyta 40 ?
filiments, klebsormidium, stichococs, rhaphidonema, freshwater

Chaetosphaeridiophyta 4 ?
single celled connected by mucilage

Charophyta 81 Nitella, Chara
many chloroplasts, single vacuole, spiral cells arround oogonia, mostly freshwater

Coleochaetophyta 13 ?
setae multicelled resh water

Embryophyta 269,200
Psilotum, Sphagnum, Polytrichales, acrocarps, pleurocarps, liverworts, hornworts, clubmosses, selaginacee, ferns, horsetails, gnetophytes, cycads, gingko, angiosperms

Zygnematophyta 4000 conjugatophyta
spyrogyra, aren't there macro patches of desmids? not a colony though

Ciliata 8000
can see stentor, vorticella colonies are visible,

Dynophyta 2,200  marine
some colonies up to 8 long marine, most comon phtosynthetic symbiotes in corals, endosymbiotize many photosynthesizers, also endosymbioted by forams...

Bacillariophyta        106,000
marine and fresh colonial, u can see fresh water colonies as brown rusty fuzz

Phaeophyta 900 spp? marine
Ascophylum, Fucus, Leathesia, Laminaria, Agarum, strings, sargassum

Chrysophyceae ???
freshwater, no meiotic sex, some phagocytosis
diverse multicellularity, long and short undulis

Xanthophyceae 100
mostly fresh, some terrestrial
single, multicell, sycytiums.  vaucharia films on soil

Oomycota 500-800
freshwater and terrestrial parasites of fish and plants and also heterotrophs on rotting veg?
phytophthora, saprolegnia, achlya, plasmopara, peronospora, pythium

Plasmodiophorida 29?  plasmodiophora
symbiotes in plants, feeding stage is cyncytium, zoospores with two unequal undulipodia, uninucleate cysts

Rhizidiomyces (parisitizes saprolegnia on fish)
single mastigonemate unduli, no sex, freshwater, soil
parasitize fungi, plants, insect carcasses
zoospores land on a victim, encyst and enter the host, grow into a cyncytium, eventually the cyncitium exits the host and cleaves into many small zoospores which disperse

Labyrinthulomycetes 15
ectos on sea grass
labyrinthula, thraustochytrium
cells enclosed in outer membrane slime net, cytoplasms connected, slime net has cytoplasm? and microtubules!
no plastids, not amoeboid, sex, external digestion sends out enzymes

Foraminifera 6000
mostly marine, some marine cells cms large
NO COLONIAL?  endosymbiotize lots of critters

Chlorachniophyta 6  ???
nucleomorph from ulvophytes
naked cells, joined by filopods into a plasmodium
capture and phagocytize prey
flagellated zoospores, single flagellum,

radiolarian colonies can be gigantic i don't know which group, confused, also they have varied endosymbiotes
the colonies are only marine?

Cephalothamnion cyclopum forms colonies of a dozen or so cells attached to a stalk.

Acrasia, Guttulina, guttulinopsis
terrestrial, stalk cells don't make cellulose, stay alive! can germinate.
Pocheina come out of spores and have 2 undulis.  live on conifer bark and lichenized dead wood

Acytostelium, Dictyostelium, Polysphondylium, Coenonia
Terrestrial, stalk cells die and leave cellulose walls
cAMP signals, haploid amoeba

Myxomycetes   500
Fuligo, Lycogala, Physarum, Protostelia (?) Stemonitis
large terrestrial, freshwater syncytiums

Chytridiomycota 1000
Physoderma, chytria, Basidiobolus ranarum, Blastocladiella
tiny single celled syncitiums?  how large?
1+ flagella, chitin , glucans
haplodiploid altern gens, quasi amoeboid phase
fresh water or soil

Mucor, Rhizopus, Phycomyces, Pilobolus, Entomophthora,  Dactylaria catches nematodes
no cross walls, haploid, zygospores 

Ascomycota 60,000
terrestrial, some marine symbiotes of algae
ascus haploid, many have appeared to have abandoned sex (deuteros) parasexual cycle, crosswalls, 

Lichens 13,500
some aquatic, marine!
Verrucaria serpuloides is submerged marine
Dermatocarpon fluviatile and hydrothyria venosa grow in streams

Basidiomycota    30,000
haploid dikaron, basidium, doliopore septum
some yeasts

obligate symbionts of plant roots.  arbuscular mycorrhyza, Geosiphon Pyriforme mm high symbiotes with Nostoc punctiforme some may mychorrhyze roots, Nostoc from liverwort Blasia and Plant Gunnera can also form these?  odd!

Choanoflagellata  120
Codosigidae: colonial naked cells
aquatic FRESH?  MARINE?

Metazoa  1,200,000
land phyla: flatworms, chordates, arthropods, tardigrads, onychophorans, mollusks, annelids, nematodes, horsehair worms(parasitic), rotifers 10/35

Xenophyophora ??
Tendal, O. S. 72 "a monograph of xenophyophora" Galathea reports (???) 12:7-103
what are they?  hard to collect intact, dna analysis? related to forams.  large.  syncytiums?

marine shell and forward mastigonemate undulli, other is smooth along cell.  in cross section the kinetid has row of 10 mt, and row of 3.
tend to form colonies.  no sex.  similar to some chrysos
no cytostomes, lorica, tubulomitochondria. stalked, looks like a chaonoflagelate without collar.